Proponents of the Big Bang have estimated from measurements of proton decay, temperatures in deep space, growing distances between galaxies, and lots of other circumstantial evidence that the Big Bang occurred some 15 billion years ago. One of several “string” theories has expanded our scenario of the Creation process such that the Big Bang is now subsequent to a much larger event—the cracking of a 11-dimensional Universe that was already in existence.
Here is a chronology now reflecting the most current scientific beliefs, including the so-called 11-dimensional string theory (actually M-Theory which unites all the current string theories). I will explain all this in more detail in a later blog entry.
0 seconds – The Big Bang occurs out of a “the cracking” of 11-dimensional space into two “geometric pieces”—four- and seven-dimensions. The 4-dimensional piece includes three spatial dimensions and the temporal (time) dimension. (I will cover multi-dimensional hyperspace in a later blog entry.)
10-43 seconds – Gravity has just broken free from the “unified forces”. (I will cover current theory on unification of the forces in a later blog entry.)
10-35 seconds – Negative gravity causes the 3-dimensional spatial components of the 4-D portion to inflate rapidly while the 7-dimensional spatial portion contracts to an almost infinitesimally small size. This is followed by the strong and weak forces taking on separate identities. Vibrating strings of energy in the 7-dimensional geometry begin to manufacture particles of matter such as quarks and electrons, plus their mirror images called antimatter.
(I cover the concept of strings in a series of blog entries later.)
10-32 seconds – The 4-dimensional macrocosmic part of the Universe is smooth and almost homogeneous with its contents at this point.
10-6 seconds – Even though the macrocosm is less than a second old, it is now the size of our current solar system as it continues to expand. Quarks begin binding into protons and neutrons. Matter and antimatter begin to annihilate each other. But since the amount of matter outnumbers the antimatter, matter will eventually remain, escaping total annihilation.
3 minutes – Protons and neutrons fuse into atomic nuclei, but electrons are still roaming freely.
1 billion years – In the macrocosm, gravity makes hydrogen and helium coalesce to form the galaxies. Quasars are created and stars begin to form.
15+ billion years – The galaxies are formed by the clustering of the stars together under gravity. The first stars die and spew heavy elements into space. Our solar system is formed, and the heavy elements that were transferred from the stars to Earth form the DNA of one-celled life.
Humans follow some 800,000 years later through a process of evolution. (My next blog entry will talk more about the first humans appearing.)